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# Industrial Process Control & Instrumentation Assignment Sample Malaysia

Industrial Process Control and Instrumentation is the discipline of engineering concerned with designing, installing, programming industrial process control systems. The course mainly covers principles for measurement in the industry from instrumentation points-of-view as well as interfacing them to computer-based data acquisition systems that are used to monitor performance or operate equipment remotely.

## Objective Of Industrial Process Control & Instrumentation Course

The objective of the Industrial Process Control & Instrumentation course includes the benefits and disadvantages, as well as how to create a successful contract.

### Assignment Activity 1: Describe the control principle in the Industrial Process System application

The control principle is the key to Industrial Process System and all efforts involve coming up with a plan for how to set controls. The design engineers need to understand the important variables, such as flow rate, pressure differential, temperature rise, and so on, in order to work out values for these variables after talking to experts from systems integrators or the utility supplier. They communicate by interviewing experts and reading various documents such as flow diagrams. These expert interviews can be carried out by an appropriate company asset owner such as a project manager or engineer; they often also serve as tools for getting site information because we don’t know what we need until we ask questions. If they’re not sure of something then it always pays to check what specialists tell them, for instance, the flow of gas is not necessarily 40 cubic meters per hour.

The values defined by the design engineers are used for what we call the “model” and this is where knowledge of mathematics would be to an advantage. However, it is not a necessity and if necessary they could always outsource the work to a third-party company that specializes in such tasks.

### Assignment Activity 2: Perform the measurement for temperature, pressure, fluid flow, and level

This is a very simple system that would be used for measuring temperature, pressure, and fluid flow. The level measurement is taken from a float-type sensor designed to detect the level of any liquid in a tank.

Temperature Measurement – Thermocouples are most efficient at measuring temperature because they have been developed so well over many years. Furthermore, they can even be substituted by using thermistors if necessary because this will only entail some additional programming work. In comparison, resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) that use platinum as their resistive material can also easily be substituted but RTDs suffer from drift problems and this problem gets worse with increased temperatures. For example, it’s possible for an RTD to show a falsely low value during very high temperatures even though the temperature remains constant. However, precision RTDs can instill a correction factor into the loop to help overcome this problem.

Pressure Measurement – Pressure transmitters are most commonly used for pressure measurement and they work using a diaphragm or piston cell made from materials such as metals, plastics, silicon, etc. Silicone is also suitable for use with fluid media that have extreme pressures and temperatures so heat resistance is a big advantage with silicone because it doesn’t become brittle with higher operating temperatures.

Flow Measurement – The mass flow rate transmitter consists of a turbine wheel that spins on its axis when gas flows through it causing it to rotate. These rotations pass onto an x-y converter before being transmitted to the PLC as a 4-20mA signal. These signals can be easily used by standard instruments because they are linear and proportional to the flow rate, so there is no need for conversions or additional data processing.

Level Measurement – The level measurement device consists of a float attached to an arm which causes the arm to rise and fall depending on the height of fluid in the tank. This movement passes onto a potentiometer that converts it into a voltage or current output, which can then be transmitted via 4-20mA and used by standard instruments such as chart recorders and indicators.

### Assignment Activity 3: Tune the PID with the right technique for optimization of the system

There are three ways to tune the PID for optimization of the system. These methods are Classical, Advanced (fuzzy logic), and Recursive Least Squares.

1) Classical methodology is a simple trial-and-error method that emphasizes manual operator observation of process outputs during changes in setpoint input parameters.

2) The advanced methodology also depends on operator observations but is supplemented by algorithms that provide some degree of predictive capability.

3) With the recursive least squares approach, only empirical data is required as opposed to documentation of all key operating characteristics for classical or fuzzy logic approaches, but still employs an objective function to determine optimal set point over time.

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