CHE245 Heat Transfer And Equipment UITM Assignment Sample Malaysia
CHE245 Heat Transfer and Equipment is a course offered at UITM (Universiti Teknologi MARA). In this course, we will delve into the fascinating world of heat transfer, exploring the principles, mechanisms, and applications that govern the movement of thermal energy. Heat transfer plays a crucial role in various aspects of engineering and everyday life. From designing efficient heat exchangers and thermal systems to understanding the behaviour of materials under different temperature conditions, a solid grasp of heat transfer concepts is essential for engineers and scientists across multiple disciplines.
Throughout this course, we will examine the fundamental modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. We will learn how heat is conducted through solids, fluids, and gases, and how convection currents transport thermal energy in fluids. Additionally, we will explore the intriguing phenomenon of radiation, where heat is transferred through electromagnetic waves.
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In this section, we will provide some assignment tasks. These are:
Assignment Task 1: Ability to explain basic principles and mechanisms of heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation.
Heat transfer is the process of energy transfer from one object or substance to another due to a temperature difference. There are three main mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation.
- Conduction: Conduction is the transfer of heat through direct contact between objects or substances. In a solid material, such as a metal rod, heat energy is transferred from higher-temperature regions to lower-temperature regions through molecular collisions. The molecules with higher kinetic energy transfer some of their energy to neighboring molecules with lower kinetic energy, causing them to vibrate more rapidly and increasing their temperature. This process continues until thermal equilibrium is reached, and the temperature becomes uniform throughout the material. Good conductors, such as metals, have high thermal conductivity and transfer heat more efficiently, while poor conductors, like insulators, have low thermal conductivity.
- Convection: Convection is the transfer of heat through the movement of fluids (liquids or gases). It occurs due to the combined effect of heat conduction and fluid motion. When a fluid is heated, its molecules gain energy, become less dense, and rise, creating a convective current. This process is called natural convection. For example, when a pot of water is heated on a stove, the heated water at the bottom becomes less dense and rises while the cooler water near the top sinks, creating a circulation pattern. Forced convection occurs when an external force, such as a fan or pump, is used to enhance fluid motion and heat transfer. Convection is an efficient mode of heat transfer, as fluids have higher thermal conductivity than most solids.
- Radiation: Radiation is the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves without the need for a medium or direct contact between objects. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero (-273.15°C or 0 Kelvin) emit thermal radiation. The emitted radiation consists of electromagnetic waves, primarily in the infrared range. The amount of radiation emitted by an object depends on its temperature and surface characteristics. Hotter objects radiate more energy than cooler objects. When radiation strikes another object, it can be absorbed, reflected, or transmitted. Dark and rough surfaces are better absorbers and emitters of thermal radiation compared to light and smooth surfaces. Radiation can also travel through a vacuum, which makes it the primary mechanism for heat transfer from the Sun to the Earth.
In real-world scenarios, heat transfer often involves a combination of these mechanisms. Understanding these principles is crucial in various fields, including engineering, physics, and environmental sciences, as they help in designing efficient heating and cooling systems, insulation, and understanding climate patterns.
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Assignment Task 2: Ability to apply the principles of heat transfer in heat transfer application-cylindrical, spherical and flat plate.
The principles of heat transfer play a vital role in various applications involving cylindrical, spherical, and flat plate geometries. Let’s explore how these principles apply to each case:
- Cylindrical Heat Transfer: In cylindrical heat transfer applications, such as heat exchangers and boilers, heat is transferred between a fluid and a cylindrical surface. The key principles involved are:
a. Conduction: Heat is transferred through the solid wall of the cylinder via conduction. The rate of heat transfer depends on the temperature gradient and the thermal conductivity of the material.
b. Convection: When a fluid flows over the cylindrical surface, heat transfer occurs through convection. This involves the transfer of heat between the surface and the fluid due to the fluid’s bulk motion and the temperature difference between them. The rate of convection depends on factors such as fluid velocity, surface area, and temperature difference.
c. Radiation: In addition to conduction and convection, heat transfer can also occur through radiation. The cylindrical surface emits and absorbs thermal radiation, which depends on the temperature and emissivity of the surface.
- Spherical Heat Transfer: Spherical heat transfer applications are commonly seen in situations such as heating or cooling of spherical objects like boilers, tanks, or even celestial bodies. The principles involved are similar to cylindrical heat transfer, but with a few differences:
a. Conduction: Heat transfer occurs through the solid material of the sphere via conduction. The temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the material influence the heat transfer rate.
b. Convection: When a fluid surrounds the spherical surface, heat transfer happens through convection. The convective heat transfer rate depends on factors such as fluid properties, fluid flow conditions, surface area, and temperature difference.
c. Radiation: Thermal radiation also plays a role in spherical heat transfer, as the spherical surface emits and absorbs radiation based on its temperature and emissivity.
- Flat Plate Heat Transfer: Flat plate heat transfer is prevalent in applications like heat sinks, solar panels, and cooling fins. The key principles involved are:
a. Conduction: Heat is transferred through the solid material of the flat plate via conduction. The temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the material affect the rate of heat transfer.
b. Convection: When a fluid flows over the flat plate surface, heat transfer occurs through convection. The convective heat transfer rate depends on factors such as fluid properties, fluid flow conditions, surface area, and temperature difference.
c. Radiation: In some cases, radiation can also contribute to heat transfer in flat plate applications, especially at elevated temperatures.
In all three cases, the principles of conduction, convection, and radiation interact to determine the overall heat transfer rate. Understanding and applying these principles are crucial for designing efficient heat transfer systems and optimising their performance in various cylindrical, spherical, and flat plate applications.
Assignment Task 3: Ability to evaluate multiple principles of heat transfer in heat transfer unit.
Heat transfer involves the exchange of thermal energy between systems or objects due to a temperature difference. There are three main principles of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Let’s discuss each of these principles in the context of a heat transfer unit.
- Conduction: Conduction is the transfer of heat through a solid material or between two solid surfaces in direct contact. In a heat transfer unit, conduction may occur through the walls of the unit or between different components. The rate of heat conduction is governed by Fourier’s law of heat conduction, which relates the heat transfer rate to the temperature gradient and material properties such as thermal conductivity.
- Convection: Convection is the transfer of heat through a fluid medium (liquid or gas) by the movement of the fluid itself. In a heat transfer unit, convection can occur through natural convection (caused by density differences due to temperature variations) or forced convection (assisted by external means such as a pump or fan). Convection plays a significant role in many heat transfer applications, such as heat exchangers, where a fluid is used to carry the heat from one location to another.
- Radiation: Radiation is the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves, without the need for a medium or direct contact. All objects above absolute zero temperature emit thermal radiation, which carries energy. In a heat transfer unit, radiation can occur between surfaces that are at different temperatures. The rate of radiation heat transfer depends on the temperature difference, surface properties (such as emissivity), and the Stefan-Boltzmann law.
To evaluate the principles of heat transfer in a heat transfer unit, you would typically consider factors such as the geometry and materials involved, temperature differences, fluid flow rates (if applicable), and the specific heat transfer mechanisms present. By analyzing these factors and applying the relevant equations or correlations, you can assess and optimize the heat transfer performance of the unit.
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