CHE225 Hydrocarbon Chemistry UITM Assignment Sample Malaysia
CHE225 Hydrocarbon Chemistry is a comprehensive course offered by the Universiti Teknologi MARA (UITM). This course is designed to provide students with a deep understanding of the fundamental principles and reactions involving hydrocarbons, which are the building blocks of organic chemistry.
In this course, you will explore the diverse world of hydrocarbons, which encompass a vast range of organic compounds consisting solely of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons are not only abundant in nature but also play a crucial role in various industries, such as energy production, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and materials science. Understanding their properties and reactions is essential for anyone aspiring to pursue a career in chemistry or related fields.
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Below, we will describe some assignment activities. These are:
Assignment Activity 1: Describe the reactions of organic compounds based upon their functional activity.
Organic compounds exhibit various reactions based on their functional groups and chemical properties. The functional groups present in organic compounds determine their reactivity and the types of reactions they can undergo. Here are some common functional groups and their corresponding reactions:
- Alkanes: Alkanes are relatively unreactive due to the presence of only carbon-carbon single bonds. They undergo combustion reactions in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
- Alkenes: Alkenes contain a carbon-carbon double bond, which makes them more reactive than alkanes. They can undergo addition reactions, where the double bond is broken and new atoms or groups are added. For example, they can react with hydrogen to form alkanes or with halogens to form dihaloalkanes.
- Alkynes: Alkynes contain a carbon-carbon triple bond and are even more reactive than alkenes. They can undergo similar addition reactions as alkenes, forming alkanes or dihaloalkanes. Additionally, alkynes can undergo polymerization reactions, where the triple bond is broken, and multiple monomers join together to form a long-chain polymer.
- Alcohols: Alcohols contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group. They can undergo oxidation reactions to form aldehydes or ketones, depending on the structure of the alcohol. Strong oxidising agents can further oxidise aldehydes to carboxylic acids.
- Carboxylic acids: Carboxylic acids contain a carboxyl group (-COOH). They can undergo reactions such as esterification, where the carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol to form an ester. Carboxylic acids also participate in acid-base reactions, where the -COOH group donates a proton.
- Amines: Amines contain a nitrogen atom bonded to one or more alkyl or aryl groups. They can undergo reactions such as alkylation or acylation, where an alkyl or acyl group is added to the nitrogen atom. Amines can also act as bases and undergo acid-base reactions by accepting protons.
- Aldehydes and ketones: Aldehydes and ketones contain a carbonyl group (C=O). They can undergo nucleophilic addition reactions, where a nucleophile attacks the carbonyl carbon, forming a new bond and creating a new functional group. Aldehydes can be further oxidised to carboxylic acids.
- Ethers: Ethers contain an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups. They are relatively unreactive but can be cleaved by strong acids or undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions.
These are just a few examples of the reactions that organic compounds can undergo based on their functional groups. The reactivity and behaviour of organic compounds can vary widely, and a thorough understanding of organic chemistry is necessary to predict and explain their reactions accurately.
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Assignment Activity 2: Apply the concept of bonding between atoms in organic molecules.
In organic chemistry, bonding between atoms in organic molecules is primarily governed by covalent bonding. Covalent bonds occur when atoms share electrons in order to achieve a more stable electron configuration. Let’s explore the concept of bonding in organic molecules further.
Single Covalent Bond: The most common type of bond in organic molecules is the single covalent bond, where two atoms share one pair of electrons. This is symbolised by a single line (-) between the atoms. For example, in methane (CH4), each carbon atom shares one electron with each of the four hydrogen atoms, resulting in four single covalent bonds.
Double Covalent Bond: Double bonds occur when two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms. This is represented by a double line (=) between the atoms. An example is ethene (C2H4), where two carbon atoms are connected by a double bond
Triple Covalent Bond: Triple bonds involve the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms. This is indicated by a triple line (≡) between the atoms. A common example is ethyne (C2H2), where two carbon atoms are connected by a triple bond.
Coordinate Covalent Bond: Sometimes, one atom donates both electrons in a covalent bond. This is known as a coordinate covalent bond or a dative bond. An example is the formation of an ammonium ion (NH4+), where a lone pair of electrons from ammonia (NH3) is donated to a proton (H+).
These are some of the key types of bonding in organic molecules. Organic compounds can be complex, and bonding patterns can vary depending on the specific arrangement of atoms and functional groups present in the molecule. Understanding these bonding concepts is crucial for predicting the reactivity, properties, and behaviour of organic compounds.
Assignment Activity 3: Evaluate chemical reactions and recommend possible chemical reaction mechanisms.
To evaluate chemical reactions and recommend possible reaction mechanisms, it would be helpful to have specific examples of reactions you would like to discuss. However, I can provide you with a general framework for evaluating reactions and proposing mechanisms.
- Identify the reactants and products: Determine the chemical species involved in the reaction, including their molecular formulae and structures.
- Determine the stoichiometry: Balance the chemical equation to ensure that the number of atoms of each element is the same on both sides of the equation.
- Analyze the reaction conditions: Consider the temperature, pressure, solvent, and any other relevant factors that might influence the reaction.
- Consider the reaction type: Categorize the reaction based on its type, such as substitution, addition, elimination, oxidation-reduction, or acid-base reaction.
- Propose possible reaction mechanisms: Based on the reaction type and the knowledge of similar reactions, suggest potential reaction mechanisms. A reaction mechanism describes the step-by-step pathway by which reactants are transformed into products.
- Evaluate feasibility: Assess the feasibility of proposed mechanisms based on thermodynamics (energy changes) and kinetics (reaction rates). Consider factors such as bond strengths, stability of intermediates, and the presence of catalysts.
- Gather experimental evidence: Compare the proposed mechanisms with experimental data, such as rate laws, reaction intermediates, and product distributions. Experimental observations can help refine and validate the proposed mechanisms.
- Modify and refine the mechanism: If the proposed mechanism does not agree with the experimental data, modify it accordingly and repeat the evaluation process. This may involve considering alternative pathways or considering different reaction conditions.
It’s important to note that evaluating reactions and proposing mechanisms is a complex task that often requires expertise in the specific area of chemistry. Detailed knowledge of organic, inorganic, or physical chemistry, as well as spectroscopy and computational chemistry, can be invaluable in assessing and proposing reaction mechanisms accurately.
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