CGE665 Facilities Engineering UITM Assignment Sample Malaysia

CGE665 Facilities Engineering is a comprehensive course offered by UITM (Universiti Teknologi MARA) that focuses on the planning, design, construction, and management of facilities in various industries. This course is designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to excel in the field of facilities engineering and contribute to the efficient operation and maintenance of buildings and infrastructure.

Facilities engineering plays a critical role in ensuring the functionality, safety, and sustainability of structures such as commercial buildings, industrial facilities, healthcare centers, educational institutions, and more. In today’s rapidly evolving world, the demand for professionals who can effectively manage and optimize facilities is ever-increasing. This course aims to meet that demand by providing students with a solid foundation in the principles, techniques, and best practices of facilities engineering.

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Here, we will describe some assignment briefs. These are:

Assignment Brief 1: Describe and identify suitable equipment and processing techniques for petroleum production, processing and export facilities.

Petroleum production, processing, and export facilities require a range of equipment and processing techniques to ensure efficient and safe operations. Here are some key components and techniques commonly used in the industry:

  1. Drilling Equipment:
    • Drilling rigs: Used to create boreholes for petroleum extraction.
    • Drill bits: Cutting tools attached to the bottom of the drilling string to penetrate the rock formations.
    • Mud pumps: Circulate drilling fluid (mud) to cool the drill bit, remove cuttings, and maintain pressure.
  2. Production Equipment:
    • Wellhead systems: Installed at the top of the well to control the flow of oil or gas.
    • Christmas trees: Consist of valves and fittings that regulate the flow from the well into the production system.
    • Separators: Separate the produced fluids into oil, gas, and water streams.
    • Pumps and compressors: Used to enhance the flow of fluids and gases throughout the production process.
  3. Processing Equipment:
    • Refinery units: Distillation columns, catalytic crackers, hydrocrackers, and other equipment used to refine crude oil into various products such as gasoline, diesel, and petrochemicals.
    • Heat exchangers: Transfer heat between different process streams to optimize energy usage.
    • Fractionation towers: Separate hydrocarbon mixtures into their individual components based on boiling points.
    • Reactors: Enable chemical reactions for processes like catalytic cracking, reforming, and hydrotreating.
  4. Storage and Transportation:
    • Storage tanks: Large vessels for storing crude oil, refined products, and intermediates.
    • Pipelines: Transport oil and gas over long distances, typically underground.
    • Tanker ships: Carry large quantities of petroleum products across oceans.
    • Railcars and trucks: Transport petroleum products over shorter distances.
  5. Safety and Environmental Equipment:
    • Safety valves: Automatically relieve excess pressure to prevent equipment damage or failures.
    • Fire and gas detection systems: Monitor for the presence of flammable gases or fire hazards.
    • Flare systems: Safely burn off excess gases during emergencies or maintenance.
    • Pollution control equipment: Scrubbers, filters, and wastewater treatment units to minimize environmental impact.
  6. Automation and Control Systems:
    • Distributed Control Systems (DCS): Monitor and control various processes and equipment.
    • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA): Monitor and control remote facilities and pipelines.
    • Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC): Control and automate specific processes or equipment.

It’s important to note that the specific equipment and processing techniques can vary depending on the type of facility (e.g., upstream exploration and production, downstream refineries, or export terminals) and the characteristics of the petroleum being processed. Compliance with local regulations, industry standards, and safety practices should also be considered when selecting suitable equipment and processing techniques.

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Assignment Brief 2: Identify and compare type of platforms and facilities used in oil & gas production & processing systems.

In oil and gas production and processing systems, various types of platforms and facilities are used to extract, transport, and process hydrocarbons. Here are some common types of platforms and facilities:

  1. Offshore Platforms:
    • Fixed Platforms: These are structures built on the seabed or shallow waters and provide support for drilling and production equipment. They are typically used in shallow water environments.
    • Floating Production Systems: These include floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessels, semi-submersibles, and spar platforms. They can operate in deeper waters and are often used in offshore oil fields.
  2. Drilling Rigs:
    • Jack-up Rigs: These are mobile drilling platforms that rest on the seabed using extendable legs. They are commonly used in shallow water drilling operations.
    • Drillships: These are self-propelled vessels equipped with drilling equipment. They can operate in deepwater and ultra-deepwater regions.
  3. Production Facilities:
    • Wellheads: These are located on the seabed or on fixed platforms and provide the interface between the subsea well and the production system. They control the flow of hydrocarbons and contain safety valves.
    • Separation Facilities: These separate oil, gas, and water from the produced fluids. Separation processes may involve the use of separators, heaters, and other equipment.
    • Compression Facilities: Compression units are used to increase the pressure of natural gas, facilitating its transportation through pipelines or for reinjection into reservoirs.
    • Storage Facilities: These include onshore and offshore tanks or vessels used to store crude oil or refined products before transportation.
  4. Processing Facilities:
    • Refineries: These facilities process crude oil into various refined products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and petrochemical feedstocks.
    • Gas Processing Plants: These plants remove impurities from natural gas and separate it into various components, such as methane, ethane, propane, and butane.
    • LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) Plants: These facilities liquefy natural gas for transportation and storage, usually by cooling it to very low temperatures.

When comparing these platforms and facilities, some key factors to consider include their location (onshore vs. offshore), depth of operations (shallow water vs. deepwater), mobility, capacity, cost, environmental impact, and safety considerations. Each type of platform or facility has its advantages and limitations depending on the specific requirements of the oil and gas field.

Assignment Brief 3: Design pipeline, horizontal and vertical separator(process equipment) based on the interpretation on process requirement.

Designing a pipeline, horizontal separator, and vertical separator involves considering various factors and interpreting the process requirements. Here’s a general overview of the design process for each equipment:

Pipeline Design:

  • Determine the fluid properties: Identify the fluid type, flow rate, temperature, pressure, and composition to determine the pipeline specifications.
  • Calculate pressure drop: Analyze the pressure drop along the pipeline using methods like Darcy-Weisbach equation or Hazen-Williams equation.
  • Select pipe material and size: Consider the fluid properties, pressure drop, corrosion resistance, and cost to select the appropriate pipe material (e.g., steel, plastic) and diameter.
  • Determine pipe layout: Determine the routing of the pipeline, considering accessibility, safety, and potential obstacles.
  • Include necessary components: Incorporate valves, fittings, supports, and expansion joints as per the process requirements.
  • Ensure safety and regulations: Comply with safety codes, regulations, and standards for the specific industry.

Horizontal Separator Design:

  • Determine process requirements: Identify the fluid properties, flow rates, and desired separation efficiency.
  • Determine vessel size: Calculate the required vessel size based on the flow rates, retention time, and settling velocity of the liquid droplets.
  • Determine internal components: Design internal baffles, weirs, and other separation devices to enhance separation efficiency.
  • Determine inlet and outlet configuration: Design appropriate inlet and outlet configurations to distribute the flow evenly and separate the desired phases effectively.
  • Consider safety features: Include safety valves, pressure relief systems, and level controls to ensure safe operation.
  • Select appropriate material: Consider the fluid properties, corrosion resistance, and cost to select suitable materials for construction.

Vertical Separator Design:

  • Determine process requirements: Identify the fluid properties, flow rates, and desired separation efficiency.
  • Determine vessel size and height: Calculate the required vessel size based on the flow rates, retention time, and settling velocity of the liquid droplets. Determine the vessel height based on the residence time and separation efficiency.
  • Determine internals: Design mist extractors, demisters, and other internal components to enhance separation efficiency.
  • Design inlet and outlet nozzles: Design appropriate inlet and outlet configurations to ensure proper distribution of flow and separation of phases.
  • Consider safety features: Include safety valves, pressure relief systems, level controls, and gas vents to ensure safe operation.
  • Select appropriate material: Consider the fluid properties, corrosion resistance, and cost to select suitable materials for construction.

It’s important to note that the design of process equipment requires detailed engineering calculations, consideration of specific process requirements, and compliance with applicable codes and standards. Consultation with experienced engineers and relevant design guidelines is highly recommended for a thorough and accurate design.

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