CBE685 Design Project UITM Assignment Sample Malaysia

CBE685 Design Project is a course offered by Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). This course is designed to provide students with practical knowledge and skills in designing engineering projects. As a student in this course, you will be required to work on a team project that will require you to apply the theoretical knowledge you have gained in your previous engineering courses to real-life engineering problems.

Through this course, you will develop your abilities in project management, team collaboration, and technical communication, which are all crucial skills for engineering professionals. You will be expected to follow a design process that includes problem identification, requirements gathering, concept generation, prototyping, testing, and evaluation. In addition, you will need to consider factors such as cost, feasibility, and sustainability when designing your project.

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Here, we will describe some assignment activities. These are:

Assignment Activity 1: Demonstrate and analyze the knowledge in designing the designated equipment and process control technologies by using appropriate methods.

Designing designated equipment and process control technologies involves a variety of knowledge and methods from various disciplines, including engineering, physics, and computer science. Here is a demonstration and analysis of the knowledge and methods involved in designing such equipment and technologies.

  1. Identify the process requirements: The first step in designing process control equipment is to identify the process requirements. This involves understanding the process variables that need to be controlled, the desired output of the process, and the constraints that need to be considered.
  2. Determine the control system architecture: Once the process requirements are identified, the next step is to determine the control system architecture. This involves selecting the appropriate sensors, actuators, and controllers for the process. The architecture should be designed to provide precise and reliable control of the process variables.
  3. Design the control algorithm: The control algorithm is the heart of the control system. It determines how the system responds to changes in the process variables. The algorithm should be designed to provide optimal performance under all operating conditions.
  4. Select the appropriate control strategy: The control strategy is the overall approach used to control the process variables. There are several strategies to choose from, including feedback control, feedforward control, and cascade control. The appropriate strategy depends on the process requirements and the control system architecture.
  5. Design the control hardware: The control hardware includes the sensors, actuators, and controllers used to control the process variables. The hardware should be selected to provide accurate and reliable measurements and control.
  6. Test and validate the control system: Once the control system is designed, it must be tested and validated to ensure that it meets the process requirements. This involves testing the system under different operating conditions and validating its performance against the design specifications.

The knowledge and methods involved in designing designated equipment and process control technologies are highly interdisciplinary. They require knowledge of engineering, physics, and computer science. In addition to the steps outlined above, designing process control equipment also involves knowledge of control theory, system modeling, and optimization. The use of simulation tools, such as MATLAB and Simulink, can also be helpful in the design and validation process. Overall, designing designated equipment and process control technologies is a complex task that requires a broad range of knowledge and skills.

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Assignment Activity 2: Perform material and energy balance on the overall system using manual calculation and simulate the selected process using SuperPro Designer.

Material and energy balance are fundamental concepts in chemical engineering that help us to understand the behavior of chemical processes. Material balance involves tracking the flow of material in and out of a system, while energy balance involves tracking the flow of energy in and out of a system.

Manual Calculation:

Let’s consider an example of a chemical process in which we produce sulfuric acid by the contact process. In this process, sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) is reacted with oxygen gas (O2) in the presence of a catalyst to produce sulfur trioxide gas (SO3), which is then absorbed in water to produce sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The overall process can be represented by the following equation:

2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O → 2H2SO4

We can use material and energy balance to analyze this process. Let’s assume that we want to produce 1000 kg/hr of sulfuric acid with a concentration of 98%. We will use the following steps to perform the material and energy balance:

Material Balance:

In order to produce 1000 kg/hr of sulfuric acid with a concentration of 98%, we need to calculate the amount of raw materials required. From the balanced equation, we know that we need 2 moles of SO2, 1 mole of O2, and 2 moles of H2O to produce 2 moles of H2SO4. Therefore, we need to feed the reactor with the following amounts of raw materials:

2 x 98% x 98% x 98% x 1000 kg/hr / (64 g/mol x 100%) = 607.6 kg/hr of SO2

1 x 100% x 100% x 100% x 1000 kg/hr / (32 g/mol x 100%) = 312.5 kg/hr of O2

2 x 100% x 100% x 100% x 1000 kg/hr / (18 g/mol x 100%) = 1111.1 kg/hr of H2O

Energy Balance:

We can use the following equation to perform the energy balance:

Σ(in) – Σ(out) + Σ(generation) = 0

where Σ(in) is the total energy input to the system, Σ(out) is the total energy output from the system, and Σ(generation) is the total energy generated within the system. Assuming that the reactor is adiabatic (i.e., no heat transfer occurs), we can simplify the energy balance equation as follows:

Σ(in) = Σ(out)

The energy input to the system is the heat of reaction, which can be calculated as follows:

ΔHr = 2ΔHf(H2SO4) – 2ΔHf(SO2) – ΔHf(O2) – 2ΔHf(H2O)

where ΔHf(H2SO4), ΔHf(SO2), ΔHf(O2), and ΔHf(H2O) are the heats of formation of H2SO4, SO2, O2, and H2O, respectively. Using the heats of formation from a table of thermodynamic data, we can calculate the heat of reaction as follows:

ΔHr = (-813.8 kJ/mol x 2) – (-296.8 kJ/mol x 2) – (0 kJ/mol x 1) – (-285.8 kJ/mol x 2) = -792.2 kJ/mol

The total energy input to the system is therefore:

Σ(in) = (-792.2 kJ/mol) x (2 mol H2SO4/mol reaction) x (1000 kg/hr / 98% / 98% / 98% / 64 g/mol) = 2269.9 kW

The energy output from the system is the sensible heat of the product streams (i.e., the sulfuric acid solution and the flue gas). Assuming that the flue gas leaves the reactor at the same temperature as the reactants and that the sulfuric acid solution is cooled to room temperature (25°C), we can calculate the energy output as follows:

Σ(out) = (1000 kg/hr / 98%) x (4.18 kJ/kg°C) x (98°C – 25°C) + (607.6 kg/hr + 312.5 kg/hr) x (0.024 kJ/kg°C) x (98°C – 25°C) = 1749.9 kW

where 4.18 kJ/kg°C is the specific heat capacity of water and 0.024 kJ/kg°C is the specific heat capacity of flue gas.

Assignment Activity 3: Apply process for economic evaluation and adapt the aspects on safety, environment and waste treatment in compliance with local legislation.

The process for economic evaluation typically involves several steps:

  1. Identify the alternatives: This step involves identifying the various alternatives that are available for achieving the objective. In this case, the objective is to identify the most cost-effective option for waste treatment while complying with local legislation.
  2. Define the scope of the evaluation: This step involves defining the scope of the evaluation, including the time horizon, the boundaries of the analysis, and the perspective of the analysis. For example, the time horizon could be 5 or 10 years, the boundaries of the analysis could be limited to a particular geographic area or sector, and the perspective of the analysis could be from the viewpoint of a particular stakeholder group.
  3. Identify and measure costs and benefits: This step involves identifying and measuring the costs and benefits associated with each alternative. Costs may include capital costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, and disposal costs, while benefits may include revenue generation, reduced waste disposal costs, and environmental benefits.
  4. Discount and compare alternatives: This step involves discounting the costs and benefits of each alternative to present values and comparing the net present value of each alternative. The net present value is a measure of the economic value of an alternative over the entire time horizon, taking into account the time value of money.
  5. Sensitivity analysis: This step involves conducting sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the results to changes in key assumptions and parameters.

To adapt the aspects of safety, environment, and waste treatment in compliance with local legislation, the economic evaluation process would need to be modified to include these factors in the analysis. This could involve:

  1. Identifying the environmental and safety impacts of each alternative, including the potential for pollution, emissions, and hazards.
  2. Quantifying the costs and benefits associated with mitigating these impacts, such as the cost of pollution control technologies and the benefits of reduced health impacts.
  3. Incorporating these costs and benefits into the economic analysis, either by adding them as separate costs and benefits or by incorporating them into the discount rate.
  4. Ensuring that the evaluation is conducted in compliance with local legislation and regulations, including any requirements for environmental impact assessment or safety analysis.

By incorporating these factors into the economic evaluation process, a more comprehensive analysis can be conducted that takes into account the broader social and environmental impacts of waste treatment options. This can help to identify the most sustainable and cost-effective option for waste treatment while ensuring compliance with local legislation.

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