CBE682 Separation Processes II UITM Assignment Sample Malaysia

CBE682 Separation Processes II is a course offered at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) that focuses on the advanced concepts of separation processes used in the chemical engineering industry. The course aims to provide students with an in-depth understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects of various separation techniques such as distillation, extraction, adsorption, and chromatography. Through lectures, tutorials, and laboratory experiments, students will develop the skills necessary to design, optimize and operate separation processes for the production of high-quality products. 

The course is suitable for undergraduate students in chemical engineering who have completed the prerequisite course, CBE381 Separation Processes I. Upon completion of this course, students will have a strong foundation in the principles of separation processes and be equipped to tackle real-world challenges in the chemical engineering industry.

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In this section, we will describe some assignment tasks. These are:

Assignment Task 1: Distinguish the mechanism of mass transfer, heat transfer and fluid interaction principles on the fluid-solid, membrane and mechanical – physical system.

Mass transfer, heat transfer, and fluid interaction principles are three different mechanisms that are involved in the transfer of mass, energy, and momentum between different systems. Here’s a brief overview of each mechanism and how it applies to different systems:

  1. Mass transfer: Mass transfer refers to the movement of one or more components of a fluid from one location to another. This can occur through diffusion, convection, or both. In the case of a fluid-solid system, mass transfer can occur when a solute diffuses from a solution to a solid, or when a solid dissolves in a fluid. In the case of a membrane system, mass transfer occurs when a solute diffuses through a membrane from one side to another. In a mechanical-physical system, mass transfer occurs when one material is transported through another due to a pressure gradient.
  2. Heat transfer: Heat transfer refers to the transfer of thermal energy from one system to another. This can occur through conduction, convection, or radiation. In the case of a fluid-solid system, heat transfer can occur when a fluid is heated or cooled, causing the solid to heat up or cool down. In a membrane system, heat transfer occurs when heat is transferred from one side of the membrane to the other. In a mechanical-physical system, heat transfer can occur when there is a temperature gradient between two materials that are in contact with each other.
  3. Fluid interaction principles: Fluid interaction principles refer to the behavior of fluids when they interact with each other or with a solid surface. This can include phenomena such as viscosity, turbulence, and boundary layers. In the case of a fluid-solid system, fluid interaction principles can affect the flow of the fluid over the surface of the solid. In a membrane system, fluid interaction principles can affect the rate of mass transfer through the membrane. In a mechanical-physical system, fluid interaction principles can affect the frictional forces between two materials that are in contact with each other.

In summary, mass transfer, heat transfer, and fluid interaction principles are three distinct mechanisms that are involved in the transfer of mass, energy, and momentum between different systems. Each mechanism has different applications and can be used to explain different phenomena in fluid-solid, membrane, and mechanical-physical systems.

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Assignment Task 2: Perform chemical engineering calculations involving mass and heat transfer in adsorption, ion exchange, leaching, drying, evaporation, crystallization, membrane separation, filtration, settling and sedimentation processes.

There are a variety of chemical engineering calculations that can be performed to analyze mass and heat transfer in various processes, including adsorption, ion exchange, leaching, drying, evaporation, crystallization, membrane separation, filtration, settling, and sedimentation. Here are some examples:

  1. Adsorption: Adsorption is the process of separating a gas or liquid from a solid surface. The mass transfer coefficient for adsorption is often expressed as the rate of change of the amount of adsorbate per unit area of the adsorbent surface with time. This can be calculated using the following equation:
    dN/dt = k*(Cs-Ca)
    where dN/dt is the rate of adsorption, k is the mass transfer coefficient, Cs is the concentration of the adsorbate in the bulk solution, and Ca is the concentration of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent.
  2. Ion exchange: Ion exchange is a process in which ions are exchanged between a solid and a liquid. The rate of ion exchange can be calculated using a similar equation as for adsorption:
    dN/dt = k*(Cs-Ca)
    where dN/dt is the rate of ion exchange, k is the mass transfer coefficient, Cs is the concentration of the ions in the bulk solution, and Ca is the concentration of the ions on the surface of the ion exchange resin.
  3. Leaching: Leaching is the process of extracting a substance from a solid by dissolving it in a liquid. The rate of leaching can be calculated using the following equation:
    dN/dt = kA(Cs-Ca)
    where dN/dt is the rate of leaching, k is the mass transfer coefficient, A is the surface area of the solid, Cs is the concentration of the substance in the liquid, and Ca is the concentration of the substance in the solid.
  4. Drying: Drying is the process of removing moisture from a solid. The rate of drying can be calculated using the following equation:
    dW/dt = k*(X-Xe)
    where dW/dt is the rate of drying, k is the mass transfer coefficient, X is the moisture content of the solid, and Xe is the equilibrium moisture content of the solid.
  5. Evaporation: Evaporation is the process of vaporizing a liquid to form a gas. The rate of evaporation can be calculated using the following equation:
    dM/dt = k*(P-Pa)
    where dM/dt is the rate of evaporation, k is the mass transfer coefficient, P is the vapor pressure of the liquid, and Pa is the vapor pressure of the gas.
  6. Crystallization: Crystallization is the process of forming crystals from a liquid or solution. The rate of crystallization can be calculated using the following equation:
    dN/dt = k*(Cs-Ca)
    where dN/dt is the rate of crystallization, k is the mass transfer coefficient, Cs is the concentration of the solute in the bulk solution, and Ca is the concentration of the solute on the surface of the crystal.
  7. Membrane separation: Membrane separation is the process of separating two fluids using a semi-permeable membrane. The rate of membrane separation can be calculated using the following equation:
    dN/dt = k*(P1-P2)
    where dN/dt is the rate of membrane separation, k is the mass transfer coefficient, P1 is the pressure on the feed side of the membrane, and P2 is the pressure on the permeate side of the membrane.

Assignment Task 3: Develop a basic design for adsorption, ion exchange, leaching, drying, evaporation, crystallization, membrane separation, filtration, settling and sedimentation processes according to the conceptual design.

Here is a basic design for the processes you’ve mentioned:

Adsorption:

  • The feed stream is passed through an adsorbent bed to remove the targeted adsorbate.
  • The adsorbent bed is regenerated periodically by desorbing the adsorbate from the bed using a suitable desorbent.
  • The desorbent stream containing the adsorbate is separated from the adsorbent bed and is further processed to recover the adsorbate.

Ion Exchange:

  • The feed stream containing ions to be removed or exchanged is passed through an ion exchange resin bed.
  • The resin bed is periodically regenerated by passing a regenerant solution through the bed to remove the exchanged ions and restore the original ionic composition of the resin bed.
  • The regenerant stream containing the exchanged ions is separated from the resin bed and is further processed to recover the ions.

Leaching:

  • The feed stream is mixed with a suitable solvent to extract the desired solute.
  • The mixture is allowed to settle, and the solvent containing the extracted solute is separated from the residue.
  • The solvent is further processed to recover the solute.

Drying:

  • The feed stream is heated to evaporate the moisture.
  • The vapors are condensed and collected separately.
  • The dried product is collected as residue.

Evaporation:

  • The feed stream is heated to evaporate the solvent.
  • The vapors are condensed and collected separately.
  • The concentrated product is collected as residue.

Crystallization:

  • The feed stream is cooled to induce crystallization of the desired solute.
  • The crystals are separated from the mother liquor by filtration or settling.
  • The crystals are washed and dried to obtain the final product.

Membrane Separation:

  • The feed stream is passed through a suitable membrane to separate the desired component.
  • The permeate containing the desired component is collected separately.
  • The retentate containing the remaining components is further processed.

Filtration:

  • The feed stream is passed through a filter medium to separate the solids from the liquid.
  • The filtrate containing the liquid is collected separately.
  • The solids are washed and dried to obtain the final product.

Settling:

  • The feed stream is allowed to settle, and the supernatant liquid is separated from the settled solids.
  • The solids are washed and dried to obtain the final product.

Sedimentation:

  • The feed stream is allowed to settle under gravity, and the supernatant liquid is separated from the settled solids.
  • The solids are washed and dried to obtain the final product.

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