CSC569 Principles Of Compilers Assignment Example Malaysia
Compilers are a key component in the computer world. They process source code from one form to another and generate machine instructions that can be executed by a processor with relative ease, but compilers must first go through three important phases before this becomes possible: Lexical analysis determines what words or characters make up each program unit (lexemes). Syntax analysis figures out how those specific lexemes interact within their own structures including determining if they’re going on hiatus for a while! Lastly comes sotckgenning, where algorithms use both semantic knowledge about programming languages as well as contextual information like context-sensitive code tables inside operating systems.
Lexing is really important for compilers, which you can see by looking at this Wikipedia article. The lexical analysis actually assists in the processing of compilers, because if it didn’t exist then computers would have to look at every single character that made up your program before building an internal representation. With lexing, however, computers can go to the first word and start building a structure.
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The specifics of how to go about this often vary from language to language, but a lot of modern lexing works by setting up a state machine that will keep track of all the current states your lexemes are in. Every time a lexeme is read or found, it’ll mark the current state as the one that deals with that lexeme. The lexer can either be implemented to understand the language after it’s read through once, or you can have a scanner that will cycle over the characters in a string and decide whether or not a new state should be entered based on what it finds.
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Assignment Brief 1: Describe the principle of a compiler that relate to programming languages evolution and implementation.
The two are closely related. Development of new programming languages influence the changes in compiler design. To understand evolution, it is needed to know that a compiler needs more than string substitution to translate programs into machine language.
The programmer first needs to figure out what kind of architecture the computer has by executing some instructions on it and checking for any output they don’t expect before proceeding on with their translation task. It’s called “target architecture analysis”.
The next step is translating the source code into different representations so that it would be read efficiently by the device or service being used programmatically for compilation, which is sometimes called “front-end translators” or “preprocessors.” This process can involve lexical analysis, syntax analysis, and semantic analysis. After the program is broken down into different parts, it is ready to be converted into machine language, which is sometimes called “back-end translators” or “compilers.”
The best known of these interpreters are Python and PHP. This type of programming language can execute any operation without prior compilation, but this means it takes longer to actually run the program. These kinds of languages are usually very simple in syntax and structure that is why they are easy to interpret at run time.
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Assignment Brief 2: Employ formal method techniques in problem solving related to lexical and syntax analysis phases of compiler construction.
Lexical phase is the first phase of a compiler where it reads uncompiled source code and produces a stream of tokens. This is a part-of-speech tagging process which classifies each token as being either an operator or basic word, literal string, function name, etc., and hence assigns it to its appropriate syntactic category. During this process, certain symbols are interpreted as beginning or ending syntactic items such as statements or comments. It is the analysis of programming languages in which grammar, syntax and semantics are defined.
Syntactic phase is the second phase that applies inference rules over the AST produced by the lexer to assign zero or more semantc types (e.g., integer value). The parser emits various constructs including declarations and named variables. The analysis phase of the compiler construction breaks down into two components, parsing and semantic analysis. These are usually done in that order, with some exceptions which will be discussed later.
Informally, parsing is the process of finding a particular structure in a string of symbols. The string can be a sentence in a natural language, computer code manipulated by a program, or even the output from another parser.
The main analysis phase is broken down into two components: Parsing and Semantic Analysis.
Parsing is the process by which a program is translated from one language to another. If compiling was random, the person inputting the code would have to find all syntax errors at this stage rather than throughout compilation. This would make finding problems much more difficult for coders to locate bugs when they arise in weird places. Parsing involves applying well-formedness rules which have been created earlier in the synthesis phase and are applied here against input data or program text stream represented by symbols or tokens called symbol table or token stream respectively representing a single syntactic unit in an assigned syntactic category. The purpose of Parsing is to identify the structure of the input program and determine which parts of it are invalid and can be ignored.
Assignment Brief 3: Display practical skills in constructing a simple parser using a parser generator tool for a subset of a language that represents the principles of the compiler.
Compiler construction takes a high-level human readable language and converts it to a format usable by a computer. A simple way to demonstrate this is in parsing text files.
A parser program reads the input data and matches that data against an established grammar rule or specification of valid constructs in order to glean what the structure of the text represents. The basic task for parsing is breaking down relatively complex structures into manageable patterns which can be more easily made sense of and built on, such as finding sentences with beginnings, but not ending punctuation yet, or pairs of strings within parentheses “()” each consisting only of words without punctuation plus single spaces between words for readability purposes.
This is often the preferred method as the process of writing the language from scratch can be arduous and error-prone. Parser generators use declarative meta-programming to manage parsing tasks, without needing to specify how it should be performed. The tool will write an entire parser which provides information about all problems that it encounters – for this reason, they are also useful in detecting errors within grammar specification before any actual implementation has been made.
Some tools that can perform this task are YACC, Mercury or ANTLR4+. These tools take a specification file which defines what each token looks like and how they interact together given some grammar rules. After the file has been processed, it generates an actual parser in the programming language of choice.
These tools also allow for automatic generation of lexical analyzers which split text up into tokens and tokenizers which split a string up one character at a time. They can even be written so that they will communicate with each other to take alternating turns at accepting and scanning text, allowing for a very efficient parsing process.
A parser in the context of compilers is often called an Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) builder because it builds an abstract representation of the source code in memory which can then be traversed and manipulated in order to make sense of what was meant by the original input file.
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