CBE698 Food Process Engineering UITM Assignment Sample Singapore

CBE698 Food Process Engineering is a course offered by Universiti Teknologi MARA (UITM) that focuses on the principles and applications of food processing technology. This course is designed to equip students with a comprehensive understanding of the various stages involved in the production of safe, nutritious and high-quality food products.

Throughout the course, students will explore various aspects of food processing such as the selection of raw materials, preservation techniques, food packaging, and quality control. They will also learn about the underlying principles of food processing such as heat transfer, mass transfer, and thermodynamics.

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In this segment, we will describe some assignment objectives. These are:

Assignment Objective 1: Describe the details of processes and unit operations involved in the food processing industries.

Food processing is a complex industry that involves multiple unit operations, each of which contributes to the transformation of raw materials into finished food products. The specific processes and unit operations involved in food processing depend on the type of food product being produced. However, some common unit operations and processes are used in most food processing industries.

  1. Cleaning and Sorting: This is the initial step in food processing. It involves the removal of impurities, dirt, and foreign objects from raw materials such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. This process is done using various equipment, including sieves, sifters, and magnets.
  2. Size Reduction: The next step involves reducing the size of the raw materials to a more manageable form. This is done through crushing, grinding, or milling. The equipment used for this process includes crushers, grinders, and mills.
  3. Mixing and Blending: This step involves combining different raw materials to create a homogenous mixture. This process is important in creating a consistent product, and the equipment used includes mixers and blenders.
  4. Heating and Cooling: The application of heat or cooling is used to achieve specific product characteristics, such as texture, flavor, and shelf-life. The equipment used for this process includes ovens, boilers, and chillers.
  5. Preservation and Packaging: The final step in food processing is preserving and packaging the finished product. This is done to ensure the product’s shelf-life and maintain its quality. This step involves equipment such as canning machines, vacuum sealers, and bottling machines.
  6. Fermentation: Fermentation is a process used in many food processing industries to create a specific flavor or texture in a product. This process involves the use of microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, or molds.
  7. Drying: Drying is a process used to remove moisture from the raw materials, which helps to preserve the product and extend its shelf-life. This process involves equipment such as dryers, dehydrators, and freeze-drying machines.
  8. Extraction: Extraction is a process used to remove a specific component from a raw material, such as oils or flavors. This process involves equipment such as presses, centrifuges, and extractors.
  9. Separation: Separation is a process used to separate different components of a mixture, such as solids and liquids. This process involves equipment such as filters, centrifuges, and separators.

Overall, food processing involves a range of unit operations and processes that are used to transform raw materials into finished food products that are safe, nutritious, and have an acceptable shelf-life.

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Assignment Objective 2: Apply engineering calculations involving mass and heat transfer in various unit operations related to food processing industries.

Heating and Cooling of Foods: One of the most common unit operations in food processing involves heating and cooling of foods. The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a food product can be calculated using the following equation:

Q = mcΔT

where Q is the heat required (in joules), m is the mass of the food (in kg), c is the specific heat of the food (in J/kg °C), and ΔT is the temperature change (in °C).

Drying of Foods: Drying is another important unit operation in food processing. The amount of heat required to remove moisture from a food product can be calculated using the following equation:

Q = mHv

where Q is the heat required (in joules), m is the mass of the water to be removed (in kg), and Hv is the latent heat of vaporization of water (in J/kg).

Mixing of Foods: In food processing, mixing is often used to combine ingredients or to homogenize a product. The amount of heat generated during mixing can be calculated using the following equation:

Q = cmΔT

where Q is the heat generated (in joules), m is the mass of the mixture (in kg), c is the specific heat of the mixture (in J/kg °C), and ΔT is the temperature change (in °C).

Freezing of Foods: Freezing is a common method used to preserve food. The amount of heat that needs to be removed to freeze a food product can be calculated using the following equation:

Q = mLf

where Q is the heat removed (in joules), m is the mass of the food (in kg), and Lf is the latent heat of fusion of the food (in J/kg).

Pasteurization and Sterilization: Pasteurization and sterilization are two important unit operations in food processing that involve heating food products to eliminate harmful microorganisms. The amount of heat required for pasteurization or sterilization can be calculated using a variety of methods, depending on the specific process used.

These are just a few examples of the many engineering calculations that are involved in food processing. Depending on the specific unit operation, different equations and calculations may be required.

 

Assignment Objective 3: Evaluate suitable unit operations based on the application, advantages and limitations in the food processing industries.

 

Food processing involves a range of unit operations that are used to transform raw materials into finished products that are safe, nutritious, and appealing to consumers. Each unit operation has its own advantages and limitations, and the selection of the appropriate unit operations depends on the specific requirements of the food product being processed. Here are some examples of unit operations commonly used in the food processing industry:

  1. Size Reduction: This unit operation involves reducing the size of raw materials such as fruits, vegetables, and meat to make them suitable for further processing. The main advantages of size reduction are that it can increase the surface area of the material, reduce cooking time, and enhance flavor and texture. The main limitation is that it can lead to loss of nutrients, especially if excessive heat or pressure is used.
  2. Mixing: Mixing involves blending two or more ingredients together to create a homogenous mixture. It is commonly used in the production of baked goods, sauces, and soups. The advantages of mixing are that it can help to distribute ingredients evenly, improve texture, and enhance flavor. The main limitation is that overmixing can lead to gluten formation in dough, which can make it tough and chewy.
  3. Thermal Processing: This unit operation involves heating food to a specific temperature to kill microorganisms and extend shelf life. The two main types of thermal processing are pasteurization and sterilization. Pasteurization involves heating food to a specific temperature for a short period of time, while sterilization involves heating food to a higher temperature for a longer period of time. The main advantages of thermal processing are that it can kill harmful bacteria, increase shelf life, and improve taste and texture. The main limitation is that it can lead to loss of nutrients and changes in flavor and texture.
  4. Extraction: Extraction involves removing a specific component from a food material using a solvent or other method. It is commonly used in the production of oils, juices, and extracts. The main advantages of extraction are that it can separate valuable components from waste, increase yield, and improve flavor and aroma. The main limitation is that it can lead to loss of nutrients and changes in flavor and aroma.
  5. Separation: Separation involves dividing a mixture into two or more components based on their physical or chemical properties. It is commonly used in the production of dairy products, oils, and beverages. The main advantages of separation are that it can increase yield, improve quality, and reduce waste. The main limitation is that it can be expensive and require specialized equipment.
  6. Packaging: Packaging involves placing finished products into containers for storage, transportation, and sale. The main advantages of packaging are that it can protect food from contamination, extend shelf life, and improve consumer appeal. The main limitation is that it can be expensive and contribute to waste.

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