Catalytic deoxygenation of palm oil and its residue in green diesel production: A current technological review: Inorganic Chemistry Thesis, UTM, malaysia
|University||Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)|
Catalytic deoxygenation of palm oil and its residue in green diesel production: A current technological review
Approximately, 80% of global energy consumption originates from fossil fuels (Hancsók et al., 2007) and it is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of 0.9% until the year 2030 (Wibowo et al., 2020; Conti et al., 2016).
Global energy consumption is forecasted to reach 780 × 1015 Btu by 2035. From this value, 280 × 1015 Btu and 500 × 1015 Btu are associated with economic co-operation and development (OECD) or non-OECD countries respectively, both of which exhibit the same upward trend (Arun et al., 2015).
Fossil fuels are widely utilized in all sectors (IEA, 2019) and contribute to economic growth in every country (Capellán-Pérez et al., 2014).
Nevertheless, the massive and uncontrolled use of fossil fuels has caused a reduction in underground reserves, as well as negative environmental impacts (Hughes and Rudolph, 2011; Gregg et al., 2008) causing major increases in greenhouse gas emissions, GHGs (Gurney et al., 2020).
As the largest global energy consuming sector, 40% of worldwide energy consumption is attributed to transportation, in the form of gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuels, including, green diesel (Kalnes et al., 2007) and biodiesel (Sheehan et al., 1998; Van Gerpen et al., 2007) with a number of reviews comparing the benefits of the diesel types (Kalnes et al., 2009; Bezergianni and Dimitriadis, 2013).
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